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Project overview


This project aims to improve the durability of perovskites for silicon (Si)-perovskite tandem photovoltaics for the technology to be cost effective.

Key results

The project examined the synergies of thermal and light stresses on perovskite solar cells with diverse types of carrier selective materials. A new type of cell encapsulation was developed that uses direct glass-glass bonding for both n–i-p and p-i-n polarities with a patent filed. The project successfully encapsulated a perovskite-silicon tandem cell using a polymer-based method which became one of the first few cells to pass the industry standard IEC 61215 Thermal Cycling test retaining 98.8% of initial PCE.


Silicon (Si)-perovskite tandem photovoltaics have shown huge potential in efficiency gains given the rapid increase in performance from 14% (uncertified) in 2015 to 29% (certified) in 2020, surpassing the efficiency record of single junction Si solar cells. While the market is willing to pay a premium for power generated by Si-perovskite tandem with higher efficiency, long lifetime is critical to guarantee the same or lower levelised-cost-of-energy for manufacturers to invest in tandem-cell technology.


This project consists of four work packages:

  1. chemical analyses of perovskite and Si-perovskite test structures and cells by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify degradation products and thereby underlying degradation mechanisms
  2. spatial luminescence imaging and high-throughput in-situ temporal characterisation of both un-encapsulated and encapsulated perovskite and Si-perovskite test structures and cells to elucidate degradation pathways
  3. development of low cost glass-glass bonding encapsulations and electrical feedthroughs compatible with Si-perovskite tandem to eliminate degradation
  4. exploration of chemically- or phase-stable perovskite alternatives such as perovskite quantum dots (QD) for Si-perovskite tandem.


This project aims to establish measurement protocols for:

  1. gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
  2. high-throughput current-voltage measurement and statistical analyses
  3. optical-bandgap, luminescent-intensity and absorptivity imaging of perovskites and Si-perovskite tandem cells at different stages of environmental stress.

The project will also increase knowledge of cell degradation mechanisms by identifying:

  1. decomposition products and reactions
  2. key drivers for electrical performance drop
  3. weak spots in cell design and encapsulation.

Finally, the project will establish research capability and capacity to maximise Si-perovskite-tandem durability by developing cell design and encapsulation strategies, such as development of polymer-free glass-glass bonding with hermetic electric feedthrough and the verification phase and optical stabilities of perovskite QD for Si-perovskite-tandem.

Additional impact

This project is expected to create 3.25 full-time equivalent jobs over two years. At least one PhD student will be research trained.

Last updated 16 June 2023


Solar research funding awarded to 16 new projects

New funding will help solar researchers to develop panels that are more cost-effective and efficient.

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