This technical report presents the details and findings for the project during 30 April 2021 to 31 December 2021.
Power electronics inverters have enabled the growth of renewable energy installations connecting to the grid at low voltage. Installed capacity from DER of less than 10 kW (mostly residential rooftop PV systems) makes up about the 60% off all PV capacity installed in the National Electricity Market (NEM). Grid and energy market operators have scarce visibility and no control of these small scale systems, yet their aggregate electricity production is comparable to those of large power plants, which on the other hand are well visible and controlled in real-time by grid operators. These aspects become critical in the event of grid disturbances, where thousands of rooftop PV inverters may unexpectedly disconnect, removing significant amount of power generation from the system, challenging frequency management and contingency planning, therefore posing a risk to the secure operation of the bulk power system.