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Project overview
  • Lead Organisation

    Patrick Stevedores Operations No 2 Pty Ltd (Patrick Terminals)


    Fremantle Port, Western Australia

    ARENA Program

    Driving the Nation Program

  • Start date

    1 November 2023

    End date

    1 November 2028

  • Project Partners


Patrick Terminals (Patrick) will deploy 9 battery electric vehicle (BEV) terminal trucks (TTs) and associated fast charging infrastructure to replace 8 diesel equivalents at the Port of Fremantle Port in Western Australia (WA) 


Patrick is one of Australia’s largest container terminal operators with operations at four strategically-located container ports nationally and handling c.40% of container volumes at its port locations. It has a decarbonisation plan which focuses on three key priority areas of fleet modernisation, a transition to renewable energy and influencing intermodal (rail and road capacity and efficiency).  The Project represents the first heavy BEV deployment for 24/7 container terminal operations in Australia. It is a foundation project under its decarbonisation plan and represents a ‘proof of concept’ for the deployment of heavy vehicle BEV technology in a 24/7 operating environment. 

Port operations have seen limited deployment of heavy BEVs, due to the higher upfront costs of BEVs compared to diesel equivalents, the incremental costs of enabling infrastructure and the current perception that BEVs are unable to perform in a 24-hour environment.   

The Project presents a high-value opportunity for ARENA to test the suitability of heavy BEVs in this operating environment, gain insights on the key considerations or risks with this use case and drive the availability and uptake of a new BEV model in the Australian market. 


Patrick will use the ARENA grant of $2.54 million to bridge approximately 95% of the total cost gap between the BEV TTs and their diesel equivalents on a Net Present Value basis, comprising the vehicle Total Cost of Ownership gap as well as the enabling infrastructure costs. The Project comprises of 9 x 350kWh Battery Electric TTs along with 2 x 260kW dual-port DC fast chargers, communication and fleet power management systems, and associated site, civil and electrical works at Patrick’s Fremantle terminal in WA. The BEV TTs will be deployed to transfer cargo between quay cranes and stacking areas within the terminal.


The objectives for the Project will be achieved through the following outcomes: 

  1. Demonstrating that BEVs can be integrated as a significant percentage of the TT fleet in 24/7 container terminal operations.  
  2. Analysing the impact on charging loads and patterns to inform the case for alternative energy pricing models.  
  3. Operating of the TT fleet to help address key barriers to adoption, such as vehicle purchase and infrastructure costs, vehicle running costs, and operational flexibility.  
  4. Building the market confidence around the reliability of the new technology, energy costs and other operating metrics through knowledge sharing activities. 

Additional Impact

Key insights from the deployment of the technology as part of the Project may be applicable across a range of freight handling vehicles in ports and broader logistics applications across Australia. 

Last updated
07 March 2024
Last updated 07 March 2024
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